1. The earliest excavations in the Indus valley were done at Harappa in the west Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind. Both places are now in Pakistan.
Important Sites
  1. The Most important sites are Kot Diji in Sindh, Kalibangan in Rajastan, Ropar in the Punjab, Banawali in Haryana, Lothal, Surkotada and Dhaulavira, all the three in Gujarat.
  2. Mohanjodaro is the largest of all the Indus cities and it is estimated to have spread over an area of 200 hectares.
Indus Valley Civilisation: An Objective Study
Major Sites
Important Findings
1 Harappa
D.R. Sahni
West Punjab (Pakistan)
Granaries, Virgin Goddess, Cementery, Stones Symbol of Lingam and Yoni
2 Mohenjodaro
R.D. Banerjee
Sindh (Pakistan)
Great Bath, Great Granary, Assembly Hall, Proto-SHiva, Brick Kilns, Mesopotamian seals
3 Chanhudaro
N.G. Mazumdar
Sindh (Pakistan)
Bronze toy cart, Inkpot, Lipstick, City without a citadel.
4 Kalibangan
B.B. Lal & B.K. Thapar
Ganganagar (Rajasthan)
Decorated Bricks, Ploughed field surface, Firealtars
5 Lothal
S.R. Rao
Dockyard, Rice husk, Fire Altars, Double Burial
6 Banawali
R.S. Bist
Hissar (Haryana)
Toy Plough, Gridiron pattern of town planning
7 Dholavira
R.S. Bist
Kutchh (Gujarat)
A large well & bath, A stadium
8 Surkotada
J. Joshi
Bones of Horse, Pot burials
Salient Feature of the Harappan Culture
  1. The Harappan Civilization was primarily Urban.
  2. Mohanjodaro and Harappa were the planned cities.
  3. The Large-scale use of burnt bricks in almost all kinds of construction are the important characteristic of the Harappan culture.
  4. Another remarkable feature was the underground drainage system connecting all houses to the street drains which were covered by stone slabs or bricks.
  5. The most important public place of Mohanjodaro is the Great Bath measuring 39 feet length, 23 feet breadth and 8 feet depth.
  6. Agriculture was the most important occupation. In the fertile soils, farmers cultivated two crops a year. They were the first who had grown paddy.
  7. Wheat and barley were the main crops grown besided sesame, mustard and cotton.
  8. Animals like sheep, goats and buffalo were domesticated, The use of horse os not yet firmly established.
  9. Bronze and copper vessels are the outstanding examples of the Harappan metal craft.
  10. A large number os seals numbering more than 2000 have been discovered
Social Life
  1. Jewelleries such as bangles, bracelets, fillets, girdles, anklets, ear-rings and finger rings were worn by women. These ornaments were worn by women, These ornaments were made of gold, silver, copper, bronze and semi precious stones.
  2. Fishing was a regular occupation while hunting and bull fighting were other pastimes.
  3. Manufacture of terracotta ( Burnt Clay0 was a major industry of the people.
  4. Figures of animals such as sacred bull and dove were discovered. The figures of Mother Goddesses were used for religious purposes.
  5. Most of the inscriptions were engraved on seals. It is Interesting to note that the Indus script has not yet been deciphered.
  6. The Pipal tree was used as a religious symbol
  7. The origin of the ‘Swatika” symbol can be traced to the harappan Civilization.
  8. The chief male deity was Pasupati, (proto-Siva) represented in seals as sitting in a yogic posture with three faces and two horns.