UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION:
Purpose: Maintain international peace and security; solve international political, economic, socio cultural problems. Birth: It replaced the League of Nations. Moscow conference gave call for an international organization, Dumbarton Oaks conference formed the framework, and at San Fransisco UN Charter was ratified by P 5 and majority of 46 other nations on Oct 24, 1945. Importance: It is the only truly universal body. Its 80% work is devoted to help the 3rd world. UN charter: It codifies members rights and obligations. It establishes its organs and procedure. Charter principles: Equality, to solve dispute peacefully etc. E.g, there is 1 country 1 vote principle, UN General Assembly presidency rotates annually among the 5 group of states. Charter caps the budget contribution at 22% to prevent over dependency. Features: Membership: UNSC recommend and only to those who accept the UN charter. There are 5 organs and 16 Specialized Agencies (multi lateral organization). Amendment: By atleast 2/3rd member consent, including P 5. UN is in financial crisis as it is not being paid full, and on time. Organs and functions: a) UN General Assembly: It meets in regular, special and emergency special sessions. Decisions: On important question by 2/3 majority, and others by simple majority. Deliberative body: passes non binding resolution, approves budget, initiates studies etc. Security: recommends collective action if veto use threaten world security. Elects: 10 UNSC non permanent members by 2/3rd majority, and other organ members, b) UN Security Council: It has 15 members. Security mechanism: It recommends peaceful solution. Sometimes investigates/ mediates by special representatives. If fight starts: Issue ceasefires, sanction and involves in Peace Keeping Operations. May recommend UNGA to suspend/ expell member. Peace Keeping Operations: Maintain peace, help implement agreement. UNSC may allow regional organization to do peace keeping. E.g, at Libya in 2011. Peace Keeping Operation department reports to UN Secretary General. Also, peace building fund helps in ensuring worldwide peace. Veto power: The concensus among P 5 was the least way to ensure peace. Elects: Recommends UN Secretary General appointment + with assembly elects ICJ judges. Economic and social council: It has 54 members, with tenure of 3 years. There are geographical representation of members. Functions: Deliberative body, co ordinates Specialised Agencies like UNDP, UNICEF etc. Trusteeship council: Administers trust territories under trusteeship system. After Palau independence there are no trust territories left. International Court of Justice: It is a judicial body, which replaced Permanent Court of International Justice. Functions: Settles disputes according to the international law. Gives non binding opinion to organs and Specialized Agencies. UNSC and UNGA elects 15 judges for 9 year term with max 1 judge from 1 nation. It decides its own jurisdiction and judgments are binding in nature. UN Secretariat: UN Secretary General heads. It is an executive body. It provides info/ facilities for deliberations. P 5 has veto powers on UN Secretary General appointment. Functions: To solves international disputes e.g, peace keeping operation department reports to UN Secretary General. It organizes international conferences e.g, Internet Governance forum. Kofi Annan started the initiative Responsibility to Protect.
Major programmes: a) Development: UN Development Programme and UN Council for Trade and Development: They are deliberative body, initiates studies. Co ordinates UN and national efforts. Publishes HDI, i HDI, HPI, and provides technical assistance to nations. World Food Programme: It has target of acheiving zero hunger and finally eliminate dependence of nations on UN to ensure food security. Protect Human Rights: Based on Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948. UN supported right to self determination etc. UN Human Rights Council: It address human rights violation. UN Office of Human Commission for Human Rights: International Criminal Court: Prosecutes if national courts are unable or unwilling to punish the guilty, thus its a court of the last resort. Preventive: UN High Commission for Refugees: Protects human rights. E.g, right to seek asylum, integrate locally etc. Refugee Convention 1951. UNICEF: UN Children Fund and Declaration of Rights of the Child. Environment: UN Environment Programme and International Panel on Climate Control. MDGs progress: The greatest progress is in South Asa and South East Asia. Progress is the lowest in Sub Saharan Afica and Oceania. There are mixed records in Latin America and West Asia and North Africa. Some developed countries are short in non income goals like environment protection etc. UN strengthening: General: Financing, planing, monitoring and co ordinating changes. UN General Assembly: It should include civil society. UN Security Council: Expansion. Updating charter: Delete Trusteeship council and Military Staff Committee.