State of Andhra Pradesh v. Rayavarapu Punnayya is a notable case in India related to culpable homicide not amounting to murder. In this case, the accused, Rayavarapu Punnayya, fired a shot in the air during a quarrel, which accidentally hit and killed a bystander.

Punnayya was charged with murder under Section 302 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC). However, the court held that the act did not amount to murder but rather constituted culpable homicide not amounting to murder under Section 304 of the IPC. The court found that Punnayya did not have the intention to kill the victim and that the act was committed in the heat of passion and not with premeditation.

The court considered the specific circumstances of the case, including the fact that the accused had fired the shot in the air and that it had accidentally hit the victim. The court also considered the fact that the accused had no prior criminal record and had not acted with any malice or premeditation.

The court sentenced Punnayya to seven years of rigorous imprisonment under Section 304 Part II of the IPC. This case is significant because it demonstrates that the Indian legal system takes into account the specific facts and circumstances of each case when determining the appropriate punishment for a crime. It also highlights the importance of proving mens rea (the intention or knowledge of wrongdoing) when distinguishing between murder and culpable homicide not amounting to murder.